Victory Garden

by Stuart Moulthrop

Publisher: Eastgate Systems
Home: Victory Garden
Medium: Storyspace



Bernstein, M. (1998). Patterns of Hypertext. Hypertext '98 Proceedings. New York: ACM.
Bernstein develops the pattern of "hypertext feint" with particular reference to Victory Garden, following Douglas.

Coover, R. (1993). Hyperfiction: Novels for Computer. New York Times Book Review, p. 1.
The second of Coover's controversial and influential essays for the New York Times is deeply engaged with Victory Garden.

Grant, R. (1993). Beyond Books: Never the Same Text Twice. Washington Post Book World, pp. 8-9.
Contemporary with the better-known Coover essay, Grant finds Victory Garden intriguing but criticizes Moulthrop for adhering too closely to the example of Thomas Pynchon.

Koskimaa, Raine. "Visual Structuring of Hyperfiction Narratives." Electronic Book Review, No. 6, 1997-1998

Koskimaa, Raine. "Reading Victory Garden: Competing Interpretations and Loose Ends", Cybertext Yearbook 2000, edited by Markku Eskelinen and Raine Koskimaa (Jyväskylä: Research Centre for Contemporary Culture), 2000, pp. 117-40

Phelan, James, and E. Maloney. 1999-2000. "Authors, Readers, and Progressions in Hypertext Narratives", Works and Days, vol. 17/18: 265-77.

Selig, Robert L. 2000. "The Endless Reading of Fiction: Stuart Moulthrop's Hypertext Novel Victory Garden." Contemporary Literature, Vol. 41, no. 4: 642-59.


Gaggi, S. (1997). From Text To Hypertext: Decentering the Subject in Fiction, Film, the Visual Arts, and Electronic Media. Philadelphia: The University of Pennsylvania Press.
Gaggi's subject is the elucidation of the postmodern idea in three works: the Jan van Eyk's Marriage of the Arnolfini, the Film Stills of Cindy Sherman, and Moulthrop's Victory Garden. An extensive and intelligent reading of the work, unfairly neglected by subsequent critics.

Ciccoricco, D. (2007). Reading Network Fiction. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
David Ciccoricco's book-length study of hypertext fiction includes a chapter-length reading of Victory Garden. "Published in the years following the first Gulf War in 1991 and before the second war in 2003, Victory Garden occupies a curious place as both epilogue and prologue, a response to the spectacle of the first war and an ominous anticipation of the second. The chapter explains how this flagship work of digital literature complicates but does no necessarily discourage the sense of immersion in an interactive text."

Ensslin, A. (2007). Canonizing Hypertext: Explorations and Constructions. London: Continuum.
Ensslin chooses Victory Garden as the second title in her canonical selection of hypertext fiction, following afternoon, a story. She is at pains to identify its continuity with the academic novel and the anti-war tradition, and to emphasize the significance — not often discussed — of the differences between these two early hypertexts. "One of the crucial differences between Joyce's and Moulthrop's hyperfictions," she writes, "is the use of language. Whereas Joyce entangles the reader in an almost psychedelic lyrical monologue, Moulthrop's style is highly prosaic, almost colloquial at times. He captures the speech of young American adults... This down-to-earth quality has a powerful effect."

Douglas, J. Y. (2000). The End of Books -- or Books without End? Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Douglas emphasizes the similarities between <cite>afternoon</cite>, her primary subject, and Victory Garden. "More often than not," she concludes, "hypertext narratives defy rather than correspond to our expectations, staking out our trails through the text not with helpful bread crumbes or bowed branches but ith dense thickets of puns and allusions, jokes and rapid reversals of expectation." Like Coover, she emphasizes the accessibility of the narrative and its underlying complexity, "a rich text brimming with double entendres, time cracks and puns." Douglas is also invaluable for her methodology, especially the use of reflexive reading logs.

Snyder, I. (1996). Hypertext: The Electronic Labyrinth. Melbourne, Australia: Melbourne University Press.
Several critics are deeply interested in Moulthrop's navigational device of the "Garden Maps", though few discuss the equally-important text pyramid that also forms the prologue to Victory Garden. Snyder sees these maps in dialogue with Joyce and with Jane Douglas' own fiction, "I Have Said Nothing".